Iron cross makers marks

Iron cross makers marks

Please reference this pinned topic at the top of the forum: List of Iron Cross Manufacturers. You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account. Paste as plain text instead. Only 75 emoji are allowed. Display as a link instead. Clear editor. Upload or insert images from URL. Reply to this topic Start new topic. Recommended Posts.

Bodomir 0 Posted June 25, Posted June 25, edited. Junker Berlin 3 Wilheim Deumer L? Lauer N? Zimmermann Pforzheim 21 Gebr. Mayer's Kunstpr? Wien 33 Friedrich Linden L? Pforzheim S. Jablonski G. Link to post Share on other sites. Bill Garvy 0 Posted June 26, Posted June 26, Bodomir 0 Posted July 8, Posted July 8, How should it be done? Join the conversation You can post now and register later. Reply to this topic Insert image from URL.

Followers 0.At a minimum, this statement is true for the foundation year series of and, at a respectful distance, the series. The historical dimension, the engaging symmetrical aesthetic, and the appealing juxtaposition of two metals which could not be more different from one another, only begin to explain why contemporary examples of this patriotic decoration are in such high demand. As this demand is now so high, and there are an insufficient number of originals, there has followed what must: modern copies.

These copies may be revealed through the use of relevant literature, photo documentation, and comparative analysis with known originals. To begin with, of course, we have the words of the Old Master of Prussian Militaria-writing. He continues: On 30 July, the day before the departure of the king to join his army, the president of the General Order Commission, Adjutant General v.

Bonin, presented an Iron Cross, finished that same day, to the king. Wilhelm himself wrote on the accompanying letter from General v. Bonin: "Approved. On 11 August, Director Schmidt announced to the jewelers authorized to make the silver frames that the Iron Cross cores could be picked up.

Furthermore, Schneider recounts his manufacturing figures in detail, and states in summary that, by command of His Majesty the King, a total of 44, crosses had been delivered as of July, from the General Order Commission to the Military Cabinet.

iron cross makers marks

The foundry to which Schneider refers is the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin, founded in and located in front of the Oranienburger Gate. For our purposes here, we must investigate the manufacturing techniques and connections of the time. The Berlin Foundry had a high technical "know-how," and when undertaking to manufacture cores its artisans could look back with pride on a long and successful company history. But the Foundry did not undertake only large-scale projects. Its experience with decorative artwork and delicate jewelry seemed to make it the perfect choice to manufacture the cores for the Iron Cross.

Let us investigate the workshops and production techniques to learn more about our subject. After the confirmation of the new core design, the first step was to make a wax model from which a master mold would be made with a soft metal like tin or silver. Then sand -- sifted several times through a linen cloth and kneaded with clay -- was mixed with water and tapped by a hammer into the mold until it was tightly compacted.

After smoothing, the workpieces were pressed in and then the second, already prepared side of the mold could be attached and assembled under high pressure. After the separation of the two halves -- which could be accomplished without difficulty as the contact faces had been powdered with coal dust before -- the master pieces could be removed leaving the remaining imprints connected by fine channels.

This is how a so-called casting tree was produced. After the finished casting molds dried, the actual casting began. Experienced workers poured the molten iron from a melting pot into the provided openings of the mold, where the iron flowed evenly into the hollows. Through previously-applied outlets, the suppressed air escaped.The Iron Cross Second Class held a certain level of prestige in the waning days of ; in war's past, even this lowest grade had been stringently presented.

However, as the conflict entered advanced years, and certainly as the German infrastructure crumbled inthis grade was given out with liberalism and therefore its reputation eroded accordingly. In spite of this, the Iron Cross 2nd Class was a valued decoration and many recipients have proudly documented the deeds which earned them the right to wear it.

The official criteria for the award was a single act of bravery in the face of the enemy, or actions that were clearly above and beyond the call of duty. Heer and SS personnel would receive the Cross for a successful action in which the soldier distinguished himself. For example, Platoon commander SS Obersturmfuhrer Eric Brorup of the 5th SS Panzer Division was decorated on December 1, for leading a reconnaissance forest raid in the Eastern front during which a fire fight ensued.

His platoon inflicted enemy casualties and brought back six prisoners, two of them NCOs. It was not uncommon for an entire unit to receive the Iron Cross 2nd Class. The entire crew of U was decorated on September 18th in recognition of their sinking of the 22, aircraft carrier HMS Courageous on the previous day. The 2nd Class of the Iron Cross measured 44mm in diameter and was held by a black, white and red ribbon representing the colors of the new Reich. For complete manufacturing information please see the Manufacturing Section of this article.

Once the basic cross was manufactured, a ring was soldered to the upper arm, and this in turn chain linked with the loop through which the ribbon passed on a standard Iron Cross 30mm was presented with the award. The central stripe of the cloth measured 14mm with the black and white stripes measuring 4mm each. Manufacturer mark, if present, was on the ribbon loop.

Many Iron Crosses were unmarked and the absence of a stamp mark is common. Click on images to enlarge Standard Iron Cross. Click on each manufacturer to see an example of the cross.

These crosses are featured because they are marked, but the lack of a mark is also completely normal. In many cases, the manufacturer of a cross without a mark may be deduced by comparing it to a marked example.

Be aware that there are variations within manufacturers and the ones presented here are representative of the maker, but by no means the last word on them. When the cross was worn in full dress, several options were used to hold it. Below are three examples of such options, the Austrian three folded ribbon, the traditional "court mounted" single mounted medal bar and as part of a small medal group. Stimson Collection An Iron Cross on a medal bar.

This variation of the Iron Cross is fittingly called "round 3" since the "3" in the dates differs from the norm in that it is round on top instead of flat. Above is a clear example of a "round 3" on the leftclearly different than the standard "3" on the right.

Mike Toivonen Collection This round 3 has a core that is rugged in appearance. This is a common occurrence within this type of cross. Interestingly, this reproduction of a Assmann sales catalog shows the Iron Cross with the "round 3" variant. Catalog S.EvansNov 23, Log in or Sign up to interact with the community. Log in or Sign up.

WWII Forums. Iron Cross 2nd Class Makers markings. Joined: Nov 28, Messages: 25, Likes Received: Here is a list of Iron Cross 2nd Class makers markings. Makers markings are located on the ribbon ring that is a large ring through a smaller ring--in which through the larger ring--the ribbon for the Iron Cross is put through. Location Fred Wiedmann, Frankfurt am Main Zimmermann,Pforzheim Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Heeresbedarf in der Graveur-und-Ziselierung, Berlin Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Hanauer Plakettenhersteller, Hanau am Main Mayers Kunstpragesanstalt, Pforzheim Anton Schenkls Nachfolger, Wein Vienna Friedrich Linden, Ludenscheid Assmann und Sohn, Ludenscheid Franz Jungwirth, Wien Vienna Josef Feliz Sohn, Gablonz a.

Neckar Robert Hauschild, Pforzheim Klein und Quenzer A.

iron cross makers marks

Friedrich Keller, Oberstein Unknown Manufacturer Ernst L. Muller, Pforzheim Osang, Dresden Adolf Scholze, Grunwald a. Rudolf Souval, Wien Vienna Rudolf Wachtler und Lange August G. Tam, Gablonz an der Neckar Bruder Schneider A.The Iron Cross 1st Class had the same dimensions and identical obverse features as the 2nd Class 44mm by 44mm.

Constructed of 3 pieces, the 1st class was a breast badge and therefore the reverse was a solid silvered metal plate with only the attachment mechanism present. For manufacturing process, please see the section in this article bearing that name.

The fastening mode could consist of either a hinged pin and catch, or the privately purchased screw-back system discussed below in "Variations". Several styles of the pin and catch attachment existed; one finds "fat bellied" pins, straight pins, and tapered pins. The pin-and-catch mechanism can very often reveal clues as to who manufactured an unmarked cross. Period pins and the catches which almost always consisted of a classic "c" catch were sturdy and do not yield to finger pressure.

While most of the Iron Crosses are "flat", some have a slightly convex appearance. The 1st Class of the Iron Cross was presented more scarcely, and logically held a correspondingly higher level of stature than the second class.

In order to receive the Iron Cross 1st Class Heer and Waffen SS men would have to perform three to four further acts of courage from the one that earned him the 2nd Class. The Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had the following criteria; the award was regularly awarded to U-boat Commanders upon sinking 50, tons and to Luftwaffe pilots when they achieved six or seven confirmed kills.

Of course these were only guidelines, and a single act of great importance or a long steady career could earn the individual the Cross. Click on images to enlarge.

This "Divisionstagesbefehl" shows 42 soldiers from the I. Signed by Gen. Werner Richter, D. As in the case of the 2nd Class, unmarked crosses are perfectly normal if a little less desired by the average collector. Below is a database of known makers with photographs. Click on the maker to see photos. Wien 15 Friedrich Orth Wien 20 C. The "screw-back" types, more scarcely found and thus worth more to the collector, had a protruding threaded shaft that was placed through the tunic.

It was held by a round plate that screwed on from behind. Sometimes, a small pin on the reverse of the upper arm was added to keep the Cross from rotating on its axis.

They had been previously made, and so they were essentially available throughout the war. This variation of the Iron Cross has its core made from non-magnetic materials, usually brass but also possibly zinc.Christmas Cheer (13) odds 2. Lonfino (12) odds 3. Patriot (10) odds Analysis Nightmare race to analyse as very open. Wagga Wagga (NSW) Fine Soft6 R1 1050m Class: Maiden, Set Weights 1:40PM Selections 9.

Caccini (11) odds 1. Brave Master (4) odds 14.

Look For Your Mark

Mosh Vain (10) odds 7. Goldylux (13) odds Analysis CACCINI placed when fresh and won't be far away in the run, the testing material. R2 1800m Class: BM57, Handicap 2:15PM Selections 1. Trying (4) odds 3. Miss Polly Beat (1) odds 8. Monsoon Charlie (3) odds 5. Pay the Ones (6) odds Analysis Will be a close run race between the top picks.

R3 1660m Class: Class 1, Handicap 2:50PM Selections 2. Paris Sizzler (4) odds 1. Kapover (1) odds 6. Kappy Cino (8) odds 8.

Chris Varveris Collection

Emerald Ice (7) odds Analysis PARIS SIZZLER a winner at first outing this prep and ran six lengths back from the winner last start at Goulburn, key chance. R4 1200m Class: Maiden, Handicap 3:25PM Selections 5. Dangan Ressha (8) odds 9. Paradiso Girl (2) odds 11. Talico (3) odds 6. Upper House (5) odds Analysis Anything could surprise in this below standard field.

R5 1200m Class: Maiden, Handicap 4:05PM Selections 3. French Politician (11) odds 1. Fox Beat (1) odds 11.

Ultraviolet (10) odds 8. Magic Word (5) odds Analysis Hard to split the top two picks. R6 1200m Class: Class 2, Handicap 4:40PM Selections 2. Makahu Boy (15) odds Scratched 3.

iron cross makers marks

Comrade Ned (10) odds 1. Pacific Tycoon (7) odds Scratched 8. Ticked Off (11) odds Analysis MAKAHU BOY winner despite being unwanted in the betting at only start at Wodonga, well placed. R7 1660m Class: Handicap 5:20PM Selections 8. Supply Money (2) odds 5. Cha Cha King (4) odds 1. Dure (1) odds 11. Loyal Toast (10) odds Analysis SUPPLY MONEY coming off a win at Wodonga and two wins from seven attempts this campaign, hard to go past.

R8 1050m Class: Handicap 5:55PM Selections 1.

ww1 German iron cross second class medal 1914

Wanna Get a What (4) odds 4.Our tips are based on our users' picks. By looking at the success of each user you can decide for yourself if their predictions are good. Don't forget to check out our football betting tips. Our virtual betting game will start again in January 2018. Welcome to the new matchstat. Livescores provided by Livescore. Tennis On Now Men ATP Tour ATP Challengers ITF Futures Women WTA Tour ITF Challengers ITF Futures Pro Tennis Info 2017 Calendar Rankings Ranking Movers Injuries Bet Ratings Surface Leaders Pro Football Info English Premier League English Championship Bundesliga La Liga Serie A Ligue 1 All Leagues Welcome to the new matchstat.

News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services. The Magpies are flagging badly after a promising start to the season, going six games without a win after their 3-1 defeat to Chelsea last weekend. And why not a long shot card bet. You can also join us on the SunSport live blog for all the latest updates from the match. Sky Sports will show the game during Saturday evening and, of course, the BBC will have highlights on Match of the Day at 10.

To inquire about a licence to reproduce material, visit our Syndication site. View our online Press Pack. For other inquiries, Contact Us. To see all content on The Sun, please use the Site Map. The Sun website is regulated by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO)Our journalists strive for accuracy but on occasion we make mistakes. For further details of our complaints policy and to make a complaint please click here.

You can change this and find out more by following this link Close document. The Sun website is regulated by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) Our journalists strive for accuracy but on occasion we make mistakes.

We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. Betloy is the best football prediction website in the world. Discover genuine soccer predictions for lovers of football who want to make gains.

If you are looking for a site that predicts football matches correctly and has the success of the punter in mind, you are at the right place. You can find forecasts for different markets and a number of them are: 1. We also provide analysis for over 30 Leagues worldwide. This makes us the biggest tips service globally. You are sure to beat the bookies with our football tips. The goal is to ensure that every punter who makes use of Betloy, rakes in tangible profits week in - week out.

Our service was rated the best football prediction site of the year because of our management system in which we guide our users step by step in their betting journey. This goal of differs us from all other forecasting platforms around the world.

If you are punter who only stakes on specific markets, we have already simplified the process for you by presenting the several markets and offering them in the simplest way ever.

thoughts on “Iron cross makers marks

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *